In order to eliminate efficiency errors in ID-based 2PAKA protocols with couplings, all types of ID-based 2PAKA protocols have been introduced over the past ten years without bilinear functions. In 2007, the first id-based 2PAKA protocol was presented without bilinear operations of Zhu et al. , based on an identifier-based signature scheme. Nevertheless, their protocol was still ineffective and needed three message exchanges. To reduce communication traffic, Fiore and Gennaro  used an exponential operation in 2010 to create an id-based 2PAKA protocol. In addition, they proved the safety of this protocol in the CK model. But this weak security model could not properly describe the capability of a real adversary. In the same year, Cao et al.  proposed a new ID-based 2PAKA protocol, which does not use pairings to reduce message exchange. Unfortunately, the protocol of Cao et al. was subject to ephemeral key attacks.
After the work of Cao et al., many id-based 2PAKA protocols were proposed that did not use bilinenary functions, but these protocols still failed to effectively solve the problem of efficiency and safety. A widely used mechanism to fend off such attacks is the use of digitally signed keys, which must be secured on integrity: if Bob`s key is signed by a trusted third party vouching for her identity, Alice may have great confidence that a signed key she receives is not an attempt to be intercepted by Eve. If Alice and Bob have a public key infrastructure, they can digitally sign an agreed Diffie Hellman key or exchange public diffie-hellman keys. These signed keys, sometimes signed by a certification body, are one of the main mechanisms used for secure web traffic (including HTTPS, SSL, or Transport Layer Security protocols). Other concrete examples are MQV, YAK and ISAKMP of the IPsec protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol communications. However, these systems require special attention to ensure consistency between identity information and public keys by certification bodies in order to function properly. In an attempt to avoid the use of additional out-of-band authentication factors, Davies and Price proposed using Ron Rivest and Adi Shamir`s Interlock protocol, which underwent both attacks and subsequent refinements. The exponential exchange of keys in itself does not provide for prior agreement or subsequent authentication between participants. So it has been described as an anonymous key memorandum of understanding….