In the Polish legal system, the legal nature of the consortium agreement is controversial. According to the dominant approach, a consortium is a different form of cooperation than a civil partnership between economically independent companies that are already operating in the market for the implementation of a specific enterprise that is a segment of the regular activities of these enterprises, based on an unspecified contract and characterized by a temporary nature, minimization of institutionalization and the absence of separate ownership. , the need to clarify how the parties participate in the joint venture and the intention not to create a “community” with part interests (the partnership itself). According to this approach, the partnership agreement, despite the very broad formula of a civil partnership for companies that commit to cooperating in a certain way to achieve a common economic objective (which is a common element for both types of contracts), is not to exploit all forms of cooperation and automatic qualification of consortium contracts, because partnerships are not allowed.  In general, a consortium or joint venture is an association of strategic companies, a combination or a group of two or more companies or individuals that have been formed to create a business together. A consortium and joint venture can be used in any type of commercial transaction, including international business transactions, and for any type of private or public project. The purpose of concluding a consortium or joint venture is to combine the individual resources and assets of the parties involved to ensure the success of the new entity. A consortium or joint venture is usually formed by contract – Consortium Agreement or Joint Venture Agreement. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, the company that built the trans-Alaska pipeline system in the 1970s, was originally a consortium of BP, ARCO, ConocoPhillips, Exxon, Mobil, Unocal and Koch Alaska Pipeline Company. [Citation required] For example, GENIVI Alliance is a non-profit consortium between various car manufacturers to facilitate the implementation of an information system in vehicles. While consortia tend to share resources, they act independently when it comes to day-to-day business.
In the case of a joint venture, two or more parties generally share ownership of a business, as well as risks, profits, losses and governance. A non-profit consortium is the Appalas Collegiate Association (ACA), headquartered in Richmond, Kentucky. The association consists of 35 private liberal arts colleges and universities, spread over the central Appalachian Mountains in Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. In total, these higher education institutions employ approximately 42,500 students.